The Perth USAsia Centre would like to thank the wide range of individuals who have supported the production of this report. Deepa Whadha, Natasha Jha Baskar and many other individuals – across business, government and academia – kindly offered insights, information and feedback that have enriched the report. Nonetheless, the author is responsible for all content and arguments contained herein.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Sonia Arakkal is a Policy Fellow at the Perth USAsia Centre. In addition to planning and coordinating a range of program and research initiatives, Sonia directs the Centre’s India programs and convenes policy workshops focussed on Australia-India relations.
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3 Peter Varghese (2018), An India Economic Strategy to 2035, A report to the Australian Government [https://www.dfat.gov.au/publications/trade-andinvestment/india-economic-strategy/ies/index.html].
4 Anil Wadwha (2020), Australia Economic Strategy, Confederation of Indian Industry [https://aes2020.in/].
5 Lisa Visentin (2021) ‘Very concerning’: Indian students abandon Australian universities, Sydney Morning Herald, March 8 2021 https://www.smh.com. au/politics/federal/very-concerning-indian-students-abandon-australianuniversities-20210304-p577uz.html.
6 Anna Boucher and Elisa Choy (2021), In 2021, interest in Australian education has waned for Indians, The Interpreter, [https://www.lowyinstitute. org/the-interpreter/2021-interest-australian-education-has-wanedindians].
7 Priya Chacko (2021) A New Quest for Self-Reliance: East Asia and Indian Economic Nationalism, The Journal of Indian and Asian Studies Vol. 2, No. 2 (July 2021) [https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/pdf/10.1142/ S2717541321400052].
9 Shareen Joshi (2021) Poverty may be COVID-19’s legacy in India, East Asia Forum 15 July 2021 [https://www.eastasiaforum.org/2021/07/15/povertymay-be-covid-19s-legacy-in-india/].
11 Justin Brown (2021) Australia-India trade deal: An early harvest or cherry picking? The Interpreter, [https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/ australia-india-trade-deal-early-harvest-or-cherry-picking].
13 Hon'ble Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Modi and the Hon Scott Morrison MP (2020) Joint Statement on a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between Republic of India and Australia June 2021, [https:// www.dfat.gov.au/geo/india/joint-statement-comprehensive-strategicpartnership-between-republic-india-and-australia].
14 Sumant Banerji (2021) ‘Boycott China’ flops: Mainland China overtakes US to become India’s largest trade partner in FY21, BusinessToday.In, (Accessed 2021) https://www.businesstoday.in/latest/economy-politics/ story/boycott-china-flops-mainland-china-overtakes-us-to-become-indiaslargest-trade-partner-in-fy21-300020-2021-06-29
15 How international investment is shaping the global economy, OECD Insights Blog OECD Week 2015. [https://www.oecd.org/investment/2015- international-investment-blog-compilation.pdf].
17 Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (2021) Fact sheet on foreign direct investment (FDI) from April 2000 to March 2021, Quarterly Fact Sheet [https://dpiit.gov.in/sites/default/files/FDI_Factsheet_ March%2C21.pdf].
18 BusinessToday.In (2021), UK announces $1.2 bn package for investment in India’s green, renewable energy projects, BusinessToday.In, 02 Sep 2021, [https://www.businesstoday.in/top-story/story/uk-announces12-bn-package-for-investment-in-indias-green-renewable-energyprojects-305772-2021-09-02].
21 CDC Investment Works, Accessed November 2021 [https://www.cdcgroup.com/en/our-impact/key-data2/#how-we-invest-in-regions].
22 Japan International Cooperation Agency, Accessed November 2021 [https://www.jica.go.jp/india/english/index. html].
24 KFW DEG, Accessed November 2021 [https://www. deginvest.de/%C3%9Cber-uns/Unsere-Standorte/NeuDelhi/index-2.html].
26 Anmol Bansal (2018) Indo German Fastrack Mechanism, Invest India National Investment Promotion & Facilitation Agency, [https://www.investindia.gov.in/team-india-blogs/ indo-german-fast-track-mechanism].
27 Access India Program: Supporting Make in India in the UK, Accessed November 2021 [https://www.accessindiauk. com/
28 Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (2014) A Special Team “Japan Plus” was Established in the Government of India, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry: News Releases [https://www.meti.go.jp/english/ press/2014/1010_03.html].
29 Reserve Bank of India (2020), State-wise Ease of Doing Business Rank, https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/ PublicationsView.aspx?id=20117
30 Austrade (2019), Australia International Business Survey, Accessed Jan 2021 https://www.austrade.gov.au/ news/economic-analysis/key-publications/australiasinternational-business-survey-2019
31 NHSRCL signs MoU with Japan Railway Technical Service (2021) Construction Week, Accessed November 2021 https://www.constructionweekonline.in/business/17420- nhsrcl-signs-mou-with-japan-railway-technical-service
32 Anmol Bansal (2018) Indo German Fastrack Mechanism, Invest India National Investment Promotion & Facilitation Agency, https://www.investindia.gov.in/team-india-blogs/ indo-german-fast-track-mechanism.
33 Aaron O’Neill (2021) Distribution of the workforce across economic sectors in India 2019, Statista- Economy and Politics [https://www.statista.com/topics/4868/agriculturalsector-in-india/].
34 Press Information Bureau (2021) Union Agriculture Minister Shri Narendra Singh Tomar reviews collaboration in the field of Agriculture in a virtual meeting with his Australian counterpart [https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage. aspx?PRID=1723499].
35 Nilima Gulrajani, Emma Mawdsley and Supriya Roychoudhury (2020) The new development diplomacy in middle-income countries: The changing role of traditional donors in India, ODI Report [https://cdn.odi.org/media/ documents/the_new_development_v5.pdf].
36 Purnedra Jain (2018) Japan’s development assistance to India: a strategic edge, Japan Forum, 33:2, 240-260, [https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/ full/10.1080/09555803.2018.1530283]
37 Author interview with Ambassador Deepa Wadwha in September 2021.
38 Deutchland.de (2019) 10 facts on Indo-German relations [https://www.deutschland.de/en/topic/politics/10-facts-onindo-german-relations]. 22
39 German Missions in India (Accessed November 2021) IndoGerman Economic Cooperation at a glance [https://india.diplo.de/ in-en/themen/bilateral-cooperation/1992794].
41 Nilima Gulrajani, Emma Mawdsley and Supriya Roychoudhury (2020) The new development diplomacy in middle-income countries: The changing role of traditional donors in India, ODI Report [https:// cdn.odi.org/media/documents/the_new_development_v5.pdf].
43 Development finance data, (Accessed 2021) https://www.oecd. org/dac/financing-sustainable-development/development-financedata/
44 India-Japan Vision Statement (29 October 2018): https://pib. gov.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=184458
45 Agenda for the Indo-German Partnership in the 21st Century (18 May 2000) https://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/blob/218868/af3e4de ad295ab34d23e25ac7b205f45/00-05-18-indo-german-agenda-data. pdf
46 India-EU Strategic Partnership: A Roadmap to 2025 (July 15 2020) https://www.mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/32828/ IndiaEU_Strategic_Partnership_A_Roadmap_to_2025
47 2030 Roadmap for India-UK future relations (4 May 2021) https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/india-uk-virtualsummit-may-2021-roadmap-2030-for-a-comprehensive-strategicpartnership/2030-roadmap-for-india-uk-future-relations
48 Joint Statement on a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between Republic of India and Australia (4 June 2020) https://www. dfat.gov.au/geo/india/joint-statement-comprehensive-strategicpartnership-between-republic-india-and-australia 49 The Times of India (2021) India attracts over $72 billion FDI in April-January FY21, [https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/ india-business/india-attracts-over-72-billion-fdi-in-april-januaryfy21/articleshow/81913516.cms].
50 Australian High Commission New Delhi (2020) Australian investment funds look to India, PA/05/20 [https://india. highcommission.gov.au/ndli/pa0520.html].
51 British High Commission New Delhi (2021), UK and India hold first financial markets dialogue [https://www.gov.uk/government/ news/uk-and-india-hold-first-financial-markets-dialogues]. 52 Ibid.
53 Author Interview with Natasha Jha Bahskar.
54 Australian Trade and Investment Commission (2021) Australian Trade and Investment Commission Annual Report 2020-21,[https:// www.transparency.gov.au/annual-reports/australian-trade-andinvestment-commission/reporting-year/2020-21-2]
55 Australian Trade Commission Act 1985 Act No. 186 of 1985 as amended. Accessed Dec 2021 [https://www.legislation.gov.au/ Details/C2012C00044].