The Perth USAsia Centre would like to thank the wide range of individuals who have supported the production of this report. Richard Maude, Susan Harris-Rimmer, Nicola Rosenblum, and William Stoltz all contributed to the research and editorial process. Many other individuals - across government and academia - kindly offered insights, information and feedback that have enriched the report. Nonetheless, the author is responsible for all content and arguments contained herein.
About the author
Hayley Channer is the Senior Policy Fellow at the Perth USAsia Centre. Based in Canberra, Hayley produces analysis on foreign and defence policy in the Indo-Pacific, engages with key Australian Government agencies and other policy stakeholders, and builds and sustains the Centre's domestic and international network.
Hayley has led a diverse career across government, think tanks and the not-for-profit sector. She previously worked for the Department of Defence producing strategic policy guidance on defence capabilities and international engagement with the United States and Japan.
LinkedIn: Hayley Channer
About the Perth USAsia Centre
The Perth USAsia Centre located at The University of Western Australia is a non-partisan, not-for-profit institution strengthening relationships and strategic thinking between Australia, the Indo-Pacific and the USA. The Centre is a leading think tank focusing on geopolitical issues, policy development and building a strategic affairs community across government, business and academia.
Since the Centre's inception in 2013, we have collaborated with over forty partners to convene more than four hundred programs across sixteen cities in eight countries, engaging a world-class community of over 10,000 strategic thinkers and policy leaders.
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a This paper defines multilateral groups as those inclusive and open to expanding membership and minilateral as exclusive, limited to like-minded countries.
b For the purpose of this study, Australia's Indo-Pacific groups are considered those with:
- the majority of group members located by geography or history in the Indo-Pacific;
- convening at the Senior Official level or above (excluding groups solely convened by the Australian Defence Forces) and;
- including a strategic rationale (excluding groups solely for humanitarian relief or environment issues, for instance).
c Groups with an asterisk indicate their associated diplomatic and strategic dialogue streams rather than core business.
1 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariate (2022), 'History, https://www.apec.org/about-us/about-apec/history
2 Frank Frost (2010), 'Australia's regional engagements in East Asia and the Asia Pacific', Parliament of Australia, https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/BriefingBook43p/regionalengagements
3 Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) (2022), 'Asia Pacific Economic Community (APEC)', https://www.dfat.gov.au/trade/organisations/apec/asia-pacific-economic-cooperation-apec
4 Parliament of Australia (2021), 'Opportunities for advancing Australia's strategic interests through existing regional architecture', https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Foreign_Affairs_Defence_and_Trade/RegionalArchitecture/Report
5 Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan (2021), 'Explaining the Rise of Minilaterals in the Indo-Pacific', Observer Research Foundation, https://www.orfonline.org/research/explaining-the-rise-of-minilaterals-in-the-indo-pacific/
6 Amalina Anuar and Nazia Hussain (2021), 'Minilateralism for Multilateralism in the post-COVID age', S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, https://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/PR210119_Minilateralism-For-Multilateralism-in-the-Post-COVID-Age.pdf
7 DFAT (2021), 'Current regional architecture', Parliament of Australia, https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Foreign_Affairs_Defence_and_Trade/RegionalArchitecture/Report/section?id=committees%2Freportsen%2F024687%2F77249
8 Mercedes Page (2022), 'A silver lining to DFAT's budgetary woes', Lowy Interpreter, https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/silver-lining-dfat-s-budgetary-woes
9 Melissa Conley Tyler (2021), 'Australia has not just had a 'diplomacy fail' - it has been devaluing the profession for decades, The Conversation, November 15, https://theconversation.com/australia-has-not-just-had-a-diplomacy-fail-it-has-been-devaluing-the-profession-for-decades-171498
10 Prime Minister of Australia (2021), 'Australia to pursue nuclear powered submarines through new trilateral enhanced security partnership', 16 September, https://www.pm.gov.au/media/australia-pursue-nuclear-powered-submarines-through-new-trilateral-enhanced-security
11 Charbel Kadib (2021), 'AUKUS partners sign tech-sharing agreement', Defence Connect, 22 November, https://www.defenceconnect.com.au/key-enablers/9120-defence-signs-aukus-tech-sharing-treaty
12 Association of South East Asian Nations (2021), 'ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific', https://asean.org/asean2020/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/ASEAN-Outlook-on-the-Indo-Pacific_FINAL_22062019.pdf
13 The six 'ASEAN Plus' dialogue partners are Australia, China, India, Japan, Korea and New Zealand.
14 Australian Mission to ASEAN (2022), 'East Asia Summit', https://asean.mission.gov.au/aesn/eastasiasummit.html
15 Melissa Conley Tyler and Rhiannon Arthur (2019), 'What can we expect from this year's East Asia Summit?', Asia Link, https://asialink.unimelb.edu.au/asialink-dialogues-and-applied-research/commentary-and-analysis/what-can-we-expect-from-this-years-east-asia-summit 16 DFAT (2013), 'Speech to the Committee for Economic Development of Australia', 20 May, https://www.dfat.gov.au/news/speeches/Pages/speech-to-the-committee-for-economic-development-of-australia
17 Singapore Institute of International Affairs (2014), 'Rethinking the East Asia Summit: Purpose, Processes and Agenda', http://www.siiaonline.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/2014-10-Policy-Brief-Rethinking-the-East-Asia-Summit-Purpose-Processes-and-Agenda.pdf
18 Author's discussions with former senior Australian government officials.
19 Steven Ratuva (2021), '2021 in Review: Fractures from Within: Where to Now for the Pacific Islands Forum and Regionalism?', Australian Outlook, 23 December, https://www.internationalaffairs.org.au/australianoutlook/fractures-from-within-where-to-now-for-the-pacific-islands-forum-and-regionalism/
20 Lowy Institute (2021), 'Lowy Institute Pacific Aid Map', https://pacificaidmap.lowyinstitute.org
21 China.org.cn (2019), 'China, Pacific island countries hold 3rd economic development and cooperation forum', 22 October, http://www.china.org.cn/world/2019-10/22/content_75326135.htm
22 Bill Birtles, Stephen Dziedzic, and Evan Wasuka (2022), 'China and Solomon Islands sign security pact, Beijing says it is 'not directed at any third party' amid Pacific influence fears', ABC, 19 April https://www.abc.net.au/news/2022-04-19/china-and-solomon-islands-sign-security-pact-says-chinese-foreig/101000530
23 Jonathan Pryke (2020), 'The risks of China's ambitions in the South Pacific', Brookings, 20 July, https://www.brookings.edu/articles/the-risks-of-chinas-ambitions-in-the-south-pacific/
24 Cleo Paskal (2021), 'How the Pacific Islands Forum Fell Apart', The Diplomat, 10 February, https://thediplomat.com/2021/02/how-the-pacific-islands-forum-fell-apart/
25 Author's interview with Australian Government officials.
26 Jagannath Panda (2021), 'The Australia-India-Indonesia Trilateral: Fostering Maritime Cooperation between Middle Powers', The National Bureau of Asian Research, 23 April, https://www.nbr.org/publication/the-australia-india-indonesia-trilateral-fostering-maritime-cooperation-between-middle-powers/
27 MIKTA (2015), 'Vision', http://mikta.org/about/vision/
28 Kemal Kirisci and Amanda Sloat (2019), 'The rise and fall of liberal democracy in Turkey: Implications for the West', Brookings, February, https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-rise-and-fall-of-liberal-democracy-in-turkey-implications-for-the-west/
30 US Department of State (2020), '2020 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Turkey', https://www.state.gov/reports/2020-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/turkey/
31 Jeffrey Robertson (2020), 'Where next for MIKTA?', Lowy Interpreter, 26 August, https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/where-next-mikta
32 MIKTA (2022), 'Joint Statements', http://mikta.org/document-cat/joint-statements/
33 MIKTA (2022), 'Joint Communiques', http://mikta.org/document-cat/joint-communiques/
34 Prime Minister of Australia (2021), ÔMIKTA LeadersÕ StatementÕ, 22 September, https://www.pm.gov.au/media/mikta-leaders-statement y
35 DFAT (2020), 'Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM)', https://www.dfat.gov.au/international-relations/regional-architecture/Pages/asia-europe-meeting-asem 36 Hayley Channer (2021), 'Roadmap to Quad Success: Practical recommendations for action and sustainability', Perth USAsia Centre, https://perthusasia.edu.au/getattachment/cab751b2-3379-4c67-91ef-11c741f71f63/PU-221-IPIS-V16-WEB.pdf.aspx?lang=en-AU
37 Gil Rickey (2022), 'Micronesia stays in the Pacific Islands Forum fold Ð for now', Lowy Interpreter, 24 February, https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter2/micronesia-stays-pacific-islands-forum-fold-now
38 US Department of State (2022), 'Announcing the Special Presidential Envoy for Compact NegotiationsÕ, 22 March, https://www.state.gov/announcing-the-special-presidential-envoy-for-compact-negotiations/